Lesson12 : [不定詞の発展的用法]

Lesson12 : [不定詞の発展的用法]

不定詞の発展的用法  < 不定詞とは、to + 動詞の原型 の事です。>

A;  It ~ to+動詞の原型 ,  It ~ for ~ to +動詞の原型 ( it は形式主語 )
B;  S+V+O(人)+to+動詞の原型
C;  疑問詞 + to+動詞の原型
D;  too ~ to +動詞の原型 、 形容詞+enough +to+動詞の原型

A.To understand his lecture (S) is difficult. =  It(S/形式主語) is difficult to understand his lecture (S).

To understand his lecture を主語にすると主語が頭でっかちになるのでIt(形式主語)を主語にする。

To understand his lecture is easy for me. = It is easy for me to understand his lecture.


I want you to read this book.S+V+O(人)+to+動詞原型 私はあなたにこの本を読んでほしい。
注)I want to read this book. 私はこの本を読みたいです。
I asked her to take care of my dog. 私は彼女に私の犬の世話を頼んだ。
I help my mother( to )carry her bag.
 (  help はto が省略されることもある. )

tell, ask, would like, advise, order  S+V+O+to不定詞構文でよく使われる動詞。


I (S) don`t know(V) how to go there(O) . 私はそこへの行き方を知らない。
I haven`t decided who to invite. 私は誰を招待するか決めていない。

Can you(S) tell(V) me(O1) how to get there?(O2)

( SVOO構文のO2になる事もある。 )


what  to  + 動詞原型 何を~~するのか 
when  to +  動詞原型 いつ~~したらいいのか 

where  to + 動詞原型 どこへ~~したらいいのか



She is too shy to talk to him. 

She is so shy that she can`t talk to him.


He spoke too fast for me to understand.

He spoke so fast that I couldn`t understand him.



This book is easy enough for the children to read.


This house is large enough for the family to live in.

「 形容詞+enough +to+動詞原型 」=「~が~するほど十分~~です。」        



 練習問題 以下の日本文をto不定詞を使い英作しましょう。

1. 夜遅く一人で歩くことは危険です。
2. 人間が自然をコントロールするのは不可能です。
3. 私は彼に出来るだけ早くメリーに謝る様アドバイスした。
4. 私の父はペットを飼うことを許してくれない。
5. 私は父に新しい自転車を買ってほしい。
6. 博物館への行き方を教えてくれませんか?
7. ロンドンのどこで泊まるか私達は考え中です。
8. パーティーに何を着ていったらいいのか分からない。
9. 彼女は年を取りすぎているので一人旅には行けません。
10. 彼女は私を助けてくれるほどやさしかったです。
11 私達の先生は10代で通るほど若く見える。
12 この話は長いので私は一日では読めないです。

正解と解説 :

1. It is dangerous to walk alone late at night.
2. It is impossible for humans to control nature.
3. I advised him to apologize to Mary as soon as possible.
4. My father doesn`t allow me to have a pet.
5. I want my father to buy me a new bicycle.
6. Could you show me how to get to the museum?
7. We are thinking about where to stay in London.
8. I don`t know what to wear to the party.

She is too old to travel by herself.

She is so old that she can`t travel by herself.


She was kind enough to help me.

It was kind of her to help me.

She was so kind as to help me.

11 Our teacher looks young enough to pass for a teenager.

This story is too long for me to read in a day.

This story is so long that I can`t read it in a day.

テストに出るかも? 復習問題


Candy :Yuko, ①I have two concert ticket. (  ②  )?
Yuko : Yes, I`d love to.
Candy : Let`s meet at the concert hall ( ③ ) noon. ④(to, there, do, get, you, how, know )?
Yuko : I`m not sure. Where exactly is it?
Candy  : It`s near the hospital ( ⑤  ) Central Street.
Yuko : OK. (⑥ 病院の見つけ方は分かるけど、そこからどうやって行ったらいいか確かじゃないわ。)
Candy : Don`t worry. Call me, ( ⑦ ) I`ll come and meet you.

① 間違いがあります。正しく直しましょう。
② (   )に入る文章はどれが一番適当でしょう?
a.  Where do you go?
b.  Can you come by car?
c.  Would you like come with me?
③(   )に入る前置詞は?
④ 「そこへの行き方は分かる?」という意味になるよう並び替えましょう。
⑤ (   )に前置詞を入れて訳しましょう。
⑥ 英作しましょう。
⑦ (   )に入る単語は?
⑧ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
a.Will Candy and Yuko meet each other at the concert hall?
b. Is it easy for Yuko to find the hospital?

正解と解説 :
① tickets  複数のSを忘れないように!
② c
③ at
④ Do you know how to get there?
⑤ on
⑥ I know how to find the hospital, but I`m not sure where to go from there.
⑦ and   電話して、そしたらあなたを迎えに行くわ。( 命令文, and S+V~~.)
⑧ a. No, they will not. They will see each other at the hospital.
    b. Yes, it is.


This is the typical image ( ① ) foreign people have of the Japanese: a man ( ② wear  ) glasses and ( ③carry ) a camera. Actually, the percentage of Japanese people ( ④ ) 50 years old( ⑤ ) have ( ⑥ )one pair of glasses is about 90%. Also, more (  ⑦  ) 30% of Japanese teenagers need to (  ⑧  ) glasses.
Glasses play a very important (  ⑨  ) in our everyday lives.
           ⑩Glasses were first brought to Japan in about 1550 by Francis Xavier. He came from Spain in order to (  ⑪  ) the Christian religion to the Japanese. He also brought guns, clocks and many other things (  ⑫  ) glasses. ( It~ ⑬   ), so they did not know (  ⑭   ) at first.
           (  ⑮  ) they began to use it, they wanted to make ⑯them themselves. The first pair of glasses in Japan was made by a jewelry maker in the Edo Period. ( ⑯   ), it was difficult to make glass lenses. So the maker used crystal (  ⑰ ) glass to make lenses. Then, in the Meiji period, the government ordered some workers to go to Europe in order to learn (   ⑱    ) glass lenses.

質問 :

① (  )に入れるのに適当ではないのは?
     a.  whose      b.  that     c.  which
②③ それぞれ適当な形に変換しましょう。
⑤ (   )に入る適語は?
     a.  which      b.  whom    c.  who
⑧ 適語を入れましょう。
⑨ 適語を入れましょう。
⑩ 能動態に書き換えましょう。
⑪ (   )にいれるのに適当ではないのは?
    a.  introduce     b. teach    c.  understand
⑯ 何を指しているでしょう?日本語で答えましょう。
⑰ 「当時」という意味の単語を入れましょう。( 3語 )
⑱「~のかわりに」という意味の単語を入れましょう。( 2語 )
⑲「作り方」 という意味になるよう英作しましょう。( 3語 )
⑳ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
a. Do many Japanese old people have a pair of glasses?
b. When were the glasses brought to Japan first?
c. Who made the first pair of glasses in Japan?
d. Where did the government order some workers to go in the Meiji period?

正解と解説 :
① a   主格の関係代名詞が入ります。
②③ wearing  ,  carrying
④ over
⑤ c   先行詞が人なのでwhich より who
     a.  which      b.  whom    c.  who
⑥ at least
⑦ than
⑧ wear
⑨ role    play a role 重要な熟語です。
⑩ Francis Xavier brought glasses to Japan in about 1550.
⑪ c
⑫ including
⑬ It was the first time for the Japanese to see glasses
⑭ how to use
⑮ As
⑯ 眼鏡
⑰ In those days
⑱ instead of
⑲ how to make
⑳ a. Yes, they do.
b. They were brought in about 1550.
c. A jewelry maker.
d.They ordered some workers to go to Europe.

After the 17th century, glasses ( ① ) frames were ②develop, and were able to wear glasses instead of ③hold them. (④) glasses became easier to use, people started to use them (⑤) various purposes,( ⑥ ) protection or as fashion items. In Gulliver`s Travels, ⑦write by Jonathan Swift in 1726, Gulliver used a pair of glasses to protect his eyes ( ⑧ ) the tiny arrows that were shot at him in a battle. In this case ⑨Gulliver was use his glasses ( ⑩ ) another purpose!


② 適当な形に変えましょう。
③ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑤ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑦ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑧ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑨ 間違いがあります。正しく直しましょう。
⑩ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑪ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
a. Before 17th century, how did people use the glasses?
b. Who wrote Gulliver`s Travel?
c. When was Gulliver shot and how did he protect his eyes?

正解と解説 :
① with
② developed  受動態です。
③ holding    ofのあとは動名詞形
④ As
⑤ for
⑥ such as
⑦ written    分詞
⑧ from
⑨ use  ではなく using  過去進行形
⑩ for
⑪ a.  They were holding the glasses.
b.  Jonathan Swift did.
c.   He was shot in a battle and he protected his eyes by using a pair of glasses.


upset, tease, character, for sure, thousands of, scenery, missing, lecture, necessary, truth, disease,human, master, bring down, share, pie, advise(v), apologize, license, allow, pet, exactly, central, pronounce,correctly, discuss, wine, flight attendant, passenger, seat belt, clear, shy, football, match, detective,principal, thick, teenager, drop in on, typical, image, percentage, religion, including, jewelry, maker,lens, crystal, worker, eyeglass, mid-, printing machine, print, magnifying glass, nearsighted, concave,figure, thickness, distant, object, reach, at the back of~~, frame, develop, tiny, arrow, battle, case,furniture, birth, ocean, treat, refrigerator, violent, movement, surface, matter, direction, shoulder bag, performer, ambulance, detail, souvenir, kid, What the matter with you?


★ It~~for+to+V ( 形式主語のit )
★ S+V+O(人)+to+V
★ 疑問詞+to+V
★  too~~+to+V ,  adj(形容詞)+enough+to+V

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