Lesson10 : [受動態の発展的用法]

Lesson10 : [受動態の発展的用法]

Lesson10の学習ポイント  受動態の発展的用法

A.群動詞 ( take care of, laugh at  )の受動態
B.知覚・使役動詞 ( see, hear,  make  )の受動態
C.助動詞を含む文の受動態
D.進行形を含む文の受動態
E.完了形の受動態

受動態の基本形;He planted the tree.   →  The tree was planted by him.

これはstage 2 「 lesson 7 」で既習の受動態の基本です。

A

She took care of my dog. My dog was taken care of by her.

★群動詞を含む文章の受動態を作る時、群動詞は切り離せません。

B

We saw him enter the shop. He was seen to enter the shop.
He made Ken wash the car. Ken was made to wash the car.
They heard Mary sing songs. Mary was heard to sing songs.
They heard Mary singing songs. Mary was heard singing songs.

 ★知覚動詞 ( see, hear, feel ), 使役動詞 ( make )を含む文章を受動態にする時は、
Be 動詞 + 過去分詞 + 目的語 + to 動詞原型

C

They will close the shop. The shop will be closed (by them).
We can view the crown. The crown can be viewed ( by us ).

 ★助動詞 + Be動詞 + 過去分詞

D

They were repairing the bridge. The bridge was being repaired ( by them ).
Is he washing his car now? Is his car being washed by him?

 ★進行形の受動態 = be動詞 + being + 過去分詞

E

 She has used it for 3 years. It has been used for 3 years by her.
They have never spoken to me. I have never been spoken to ( by them ).

 ★完了形の受動態 = have( has, had ) + been + 過去分詞

理解度確認問題

以下の文章の態を変えましょう。

1. My mother will use this computer tomorrow.
2. I must clean my room.
3. We can see many kinds of flowers in this garden.
4. Who brought him up?
5. They made fun of the little boy.
6.  She is cooking dinner now.
7. We heard Mary sing a song.
8. Tom has finished his homework.
9. A new building is being built here.
10. The tree has already been cut down by the workers.
11. I will be laughed at by everyone.
12. He was seen to swing his stick around by us.

正解と解説 :
1. This computer will be used tomorrow by my mother.
2. My room must be cleaned by me.
3. Many kinds of flowers can be seen in this garden.
4. Who was he brought up by?  ( By whom was he brought up? )
5. The little boy was made fun of ( by them ).
6. Dinner is being cooked by her.
7. Mary was heard to sing a song.
8. His homework has been finished by Tom.
9. They are building a new building here.
10. The workers have already cut down the tree.
11. Everyone will laugh at me.
12. We saw him swing his stick around.

テストに出るかも? 復習問題

以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。


(①人類はほぼ1000年もの間、ロボット開発に興味を抱いてきた)。The idea② of creating robots has been the goal ③of many scientists in history. ④The first working robot was created by Al-Jaziri, an inventor( ⑤live ) in Turkey around the year 1200. He invented a robot that could wash your hands. It used the same simple technology ( ⑥ ) modern flush toilets. More recently, during the Meiji period in Japan, the engineer Tanaka Hisashige made toys that could serve tea and even shoot arrows.
         ⑧The word “ robot “ was first used in 1920. A Czech writer (⑦ name ) Karel Capek wrote a play about Machines that looked like humans. In the play, he called those machines “ robota.” The word “ robota “in Crech means “ work.”
         Industries became interested(⑨ ) robots in the 1960s, ( ⑩ ) robotic arms were used for work. In factories,⑪ repeated tasks were easily done by robots. One company⑬that uses machines for industry is Sony. Kitano Hiroaki, (  ⑫  ) works for Sony , thought⑭that more creativity in robotics was needed. In 1997,Kitano started the RoboCup tournament for robots.

① 英作しましょう。
②③ of の使い方はそれぞれ同じでしょうか?
④ 態を変えましょう。
⑤ 適当な形にしましょう。
⑥ 適語を補いましょう。
⑦ 適当な形にしましょう。
⑧ 態を変えましょう。
⑨ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑩ 関係詞を入れましょう。
⑪ 態を変えましょう。
⑫ 関係詞を入れましょう。
⑬⑭ thatの使い方はそれぞれ同じでしょうか?
⑮ Answer the following questions in English.
    a. When did Tanaka Hisashige make toys that could serve tea and shoot arrows?
    b. What does the word “ robota “ mean in Czech?
    c. Who started the RoboCup tournament for robots?

正解と解説 :
① Humans have been interested in developing robots for almost 1,000 years.
② 同格のof
③ 所有のof 故に、②③のofの使い方は違います。
④ Al-Jazari created the first working robot.
⑤ living
⑥ as  「the same A as B」
⑦ named
⑧ They first used the word “ robot “ in 1920.
⑨ in
⑩ when
⑪ Robots easily did repeated tasks.
⑫ who
⑬ 関係代名詞
⑭ 接続詞  故に違います。
⑮ a.  He did it during the Meiji period.
    b.  It means work.
    c.  Kitano Hiroaki did.


It (① with humans, scientists, life-size robots, a long time, to, create, compete, a long time,will be, before, can ) on the soccer field. But the robots (② create ) now are models for the future. The young researchers are learning ( ③ ) ( ③ ) ( ③ ) problems of ( ④ ) and ( ⑤ ). There are even robot announcers who comment ( ⑥ ) the game!
           Competitions like RoboCup are leading us into the future. ( ⑦ ) the RoboCup tournament,the goal is not only to make robots (⑧) have soccer skills, ( ⑨ ) ( ⑨ ) to create technology ( ⑩ ) can helpsave human lives.( ⑪ )( ⑪ ),⑫ robots can be used to rescue people in dangerous situations, such as fires.
           Also, people ( ⑬ ) have lost their arms or legs may be able to use robotic replacements. The technology(⑭ develop ) in the RoboCup soccer games will surely be ( ⑮ ) ( ⑮ )(⑯ invent )those replacements. The future (  ⑰  ) many possibilities.

① 単語を並び替えて意味の通る文章にしましょう。
② 適当な形に変えましょう。
③「 解き方 」という意味になるよう適語を入れましょう。
④⑤ 空欄に入る単語は以下のどれが適当でしょうか?
    a.  height  weight       b.  balance  speed       c.  quality   quantity
⑥ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑦ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑧⑩⑬ それぞれの空欄に入る関係詞はどれが適当でしょうか?以下の中から選びましょう。
    a.  which, that, which     b.  who, which, whom    c,  which, that, who
⑨ 適語を入れましょう。
⑪「 たとえば 」という意味になるよう適語を入れましょう。
⑫ 態を変えましょう。
⑭ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑮「 応用される 」という意味になるよう適語を入れましょう。
⑯ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑰ 空欄に入る動詞はどれが適当でしょうか?
    a.   changes        b.  holds        c.  takes
⑱ Answer the following questions in English.
    a.   What are the young researchers learning?
    b.   What is the goal of the RoboCup tournament?
    c.   How can robots be used ?  Please write one answer.

正解と解説 :
① will be a long time before scientists can create life-size robots
② created
③ how to solve
④⑤ b
⑥ on
⑦ At
⑧⑩⑬ c
⑨ but also
⑪ For example
⑫ We can use robots to rescue people in dangerous situations.
⑭ developed
⑮ applied to
⑯ inventing
⑰ b
⑱ a. They are learning how to solve problems of balance and speed.
b. It is not only to make robots which have soccer skills, but also tocreate technology that can help save human lives.
c. They can be used to rescue people in dangerous situations, such as fires.
    They can replace people`s lost arms or legs.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

foreigner, instructor, happiness, cheerful, dusty, lip, princess, rent, stick, beautifully, chapel, look up to~,queen, crown, copy, commercial, press, oil, advertise, stare at~, increase, robot, competition, experiment,advanced, robotic, inventor, flush, task, creativity, robotics, technicians, rescue, reaction, efficient, practical,
stand for~, medium-sized, human-shaped, react, complicated, goalkeeper,  onto, on one`s own, fall down, life-size, announcer, comment, replacement, possibility, suggestion, seaside, option, barbecue,flashlight, fishing rod,

文法のまとめ

★ 受動態の発展的用法。
★ 意見を求める表現。
    What do you think of~~?  Are you for or against~~?
    Do you have any suggestion for~~?
★ 意見を述べる表現
    As you say, I~~~. My opinion is ~~~. I see your point, but~~.
★ 句動詞
    come across,  run away,  carry out,  get along with,  turn on,  turn off,look after,  look forward to,  look out,  look up,  look for, pick up your sister and brother,  pick them up,  pick your sister up,

ニュートレジャー stage3一覧はこちら

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