Lesson6 : [前置詞+関係代名詞or関係代名詞+前置詞,関係副詞,関係副詞の制限用法、非制限用法をマスターしよう!]

Lesson6 : [前置詞+関係代名詞or関係代名詞+前置詞,関係副詞,関係副詞の制限用法、非制限用法をマスターしよう!]

Lesson6の学習ポイント
A : 前置詞+関係代名詞 or  関係代名詞+前置詞
B : 関係副詞
: 関係副詞の制限用法、非制限用法

A 前置詞+関係代名詞 ( 前置詞と関係代名詞の位置 )


I want to visit the house.  He was born in it.
I want to visit the house (which/ that) he was born in.
前置詞は関係代名詞節の後ろ
I want to visit the house in (which / that) he was born.
前置詞は関係代名詞の前
*前置詞は関係代名詞の前、節の後、どちらでもOK.
訳)私は彼が生まれた家を訪ねたいです。


I won`t attend the party. I have been looking forward to the party.
I won`t attend the party ( which/that ) I was looking forward to.
toは関係代名詞の前には置けない
*look forward to~は切り離せない群動詞なので、前置詞toは関係代名詞の前には置けない。
訳)私は楽しみにしていたパーテイーに参加しないでしょう。

B 関係副詞 ( 前置詞+関係代名詞 )where,  when,  why,  how

This is the town. My father lived in the town.
This is the town where my father lived. = This is the town in which my father lived.
訳)これは私の父が住んでいた町です。

I`ll never forget the day.  I met him for the first time on the day.
I`ll never forget the day (when )I met him for the first time. = on which, whenを省略できる。
I`ll never forget when I met him for the first time.  先行詞the day 省略できる。
訳)私は彼に初めて会った日を絶対に忘れないでしょう。

Tell me the reason. You were absent from school for the reason.
Tell me the reason (why) you were absent from school. whyを省略できる。
Tell me why you were absent from school. 先行詞のthe reason 省略できる。
訳)昨日学校を休んだ理由を話しなさい。

That`s the way. They succeeded in removing the landmines in the way.
That`s how they succeeded in removing the landmines.
That`s the waythat , in which  ) they succeeded in removing the landmines.
*That`s the way how they succeeded. の使い方はないです。
訳)そのようにして彼らは地雷の撤去に成功しました。

C 関係副詞の制限用法、非制限用法・・・カンマがあるかないかで訳し方が変わるので注意!

Let`s go to the coffee shop where my sister works.
訳)私の姉が働くカフェに行こう。
Let`s go to the coffee shop, where my sister works.  
訳)喫茶店に行こう。そこでは私の姉が働いてます。

We went to Hibiya park last Sunday when it was crowded with visitors.
訳)私達は日比谷公園に訪問者で込み合う先週日曜日に行った。
We went to Hibiya park last Sunday, when it was crowded with visitors. = and then
訳)私達は日比谷公園に先週日曜日に行ったけど、その日は訪問者で込み合っていた。

* , (カンマ)why  ,(カンマ) how はないので注意!

理解度確認問題

1.以下の空所に適当な、関係代名詞、関係副詞を選びましょう。

① That`s the hospital ( when, which, in which, where ) my brother was born in.
② We moved here two years ago ( where, what, when ) I was twelve.
③ Kyoto, ( which, where, when,  ) I was born, has a population of over 1.4 million.
④ The girl (to whom, who, which, whom ) he spoke to is my sister.
⑤ This is the park ( at which, on which, when ) we sometimes play soccer.
⑥ I don`t know the reason ( when, why, which ) he is angry.
⑦ That` the way ( which, how, that, ) he mastered English.
⑧ I had no money. That`s ( where, when, why ) I walked home from school.
⑨ Look at the sofa ( in which, at which, on which ) he is sitting.
⑩ There was a time ( where, at which, why ) the earth was covered with ice.

正解と解説 :
① which      born in なので関係代名詞whichが正解。
② when
③ where
④ whom     spoke to なので関係代名詞whom が正解。
⑤ at which   play soccer at the park ですね。 where でもOK.
⑥ why
⑦ how
⑧ why
⑨ on which   sit on the sofa ですね。where でもOK.
⑩ at which   at a time  ですね。when でもOK。

2.以下の日本文を、関係代名詞、関係副詞に気を付けて、英作しましょう。

① 彼は一緒に働く人達に囲まれた。
② 私は最初に公衆の面前で話をした日の事を決して忘れないでしょう。
③ 気候が温暖な国に引っ越したいです。
④ 東京から遠くない鎌倉はかつて日本の首都でした。
⑤ 鎌倉は東京から遠くなくてかつては日本の首都でした。
⑥ 彼らが敵を匿う理由が私にはわからない。
⑦ どうやってライオンが逃げたのか誰もわからない。
⑧ 私はコロンビア大学に入学して、そこで経済学を専攻した。

正解と解説 :
① He was surrounded by the people with whom he worked.
    ( whom he worked with 可 )
② I will never forget the day when I first made a speech in public.
    I will never forget the day on which I first made a speech in public.
    I will never forget when I first made a speech in public.
③ I want to move to a country where the climate is mild.
④ Kamakura which is not far from Tokyo was once the capital of Japan.
⑤ Kamakura, which is not far from Tokyo was once the capital of Japan.
⑥ I don`t know the reason why guarded their enemies.
    I don`t know why they guarded their enemies.
    I don`t know the reason they guarded their enemies.
⑦ Nobody knows how the lion escaped.
    Nobody knows the way the lion escaped.
    Nobody knows the way in which the lion escaped.
    Nobody knows the way that the lion escaped.
⑧ I entered Columbia University, where I majored in economics.

理解度確認テスト

1. 以下の会話文を読んで質問に答えましょう。

Ken`s grandma : his is the school (  ①  ) your father ②used to studying.
Ken                  : Really
Ken`s grandma : Oh, yes. I remember the day ③when he first went to school.
    He was only five.I cried ④when we said good bye.
Ken                  : You cried?
Ken`s grandma : Yes. I don`t know the reason ( ⑤ ) I cried, but I think I was more nervous ( ⑥ ) he was!
Ken                   :「あなたの責任です」という意味になるよう1語補いましょう。
Ken`s grandma : Answer the following questions in English.

① 適当な関係副詞を入れましょう。
② 間違いを直して訳しましょう。
③④ それぞれ同じ使い方のwhenですか?説明してください。
⑤ 適当な関係副詞を入れましょう。
⑥ 適語を入れましょう。

正解と解説 :
① where
② used to studyが正解。 かつて勉強していた。
③④ ③は関係副詞、④は「~の時」を表す接続詞
⑤ why
⑥ than

2. 以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。  


Hawaii was first visited by Europeans in 1778. In the (②) 19th and (③) 20th centuries, people came to Hawaii from places like Portugal, China, Japan and the Philippines ( ④)(④ )(④ ) work on farms and sugar plantations. 
At first, ⑥these workers had no ( ⑤ )to communicate with the people they worked with. English was the only common language among them. At that time, ⑦( was, part of the United States of America, Hawaii,where, gradually, becoming, was, English ). Workers picked up English and added something
( ⑧ ) it from their own languages. Hawaiian Pidgin consists ( ⑨ ) English plus loanwords and structures from the workers` first languages.
Hawaiian Pidgin gradually (  ⑩  ) all over Hawaii and children began to speak it as their first language. (  ⑪ )the 1920s, Pidgin was the language of the majority of Hawaiians.

① 能動態の文章に書き換えましょう。
②③ 空所に入る適語の組み合わせはどれでしょうか?
    a.   first, last          b.  middle ,  late         c.  late ,  early
④ 適切な形にしましょう。
⑤ 「一緒に働く人との交流方法がなかった。」という意味にするために( )に入る適語は?
⑥ 関係代名詞が省略されています。関係代名詞が入る前の単語を書きましょう。
⑦ 意味の通る文章に並び替えましょう。
⑧ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑨ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑩ 空所に入る動詞はどれでしょうか?
    a.  spoke              b.  appeared              c.  spread
⑪ 「1920年代までには、」という意味になるよう単語を入れましょう。
⑫ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
    a. Who visited Hawaii first?
    b. What was the common language in America?

正解と解説 :
① Europeans first visited Hawaii in 1778.
②③ c   19世紀後半、20世紀初め
④ in order to
⑤ way
⑥ people
⑦ Hawaii was gradually becoming part of the United States of America, where English was the common language.
⑧ to    /add ~ to~
⑨ of    /consist of~~
⑩ c
⑪ By
⑫ a.  Europeans did.
    b.  English was.


People today understand that there is a great deal of variation in ①( speak ) English, in even in the most formal situations. This new understanding has brought new respect ( ② ) Hawaiian, (  ③  ) is now taught in Hawaiian schools.
One example of this is a lawyer ( ④ ) speaks Pidgin as his native language, He was a shy boy ( ⑤ )didn`t speak good Standard English. He never dreamed of ⑥( have ) a high status job like that of a lawyer.
However, when he was learning ⑦(スピーチの仕方)at school, his teacher ( ⑧ ) him to speak in Pidgin. By doing so, he succeeded ( ⑨  ) delivering his speeches more smoothly. He gained confidence and now speaks ( ⑩ 公の前で ) in Pidgin ⑪as well as Standard English.

① 正しい形に変えましょう。
② 前置詞を入れましょう。
③ どの関係代名詞が入りますか?
    a.  which                  b.  that               c.  where
④⑤ 同じ関係代名詞を入れましょう。
⑥ 正しい形に変えましょう。
⑦ 英語にしましょう。
⑧ (   )に入るのに適切な動詞は?
    a.  forced                  b.  taught                c.  encouraged
⑨ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑩ 英語にしましょう。
⑪ He speaks Standard English as well as in Pidgin. を not only~but also を使って書き換えましょう。
⑫ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
    a.  Do you think there is a great deal of variation in spoken English?
    b.  What do you think is the most important thing to master English?

正解と解説 :
① spoken
② for
③ a
④⑤ who
⑥ having   前置詞の後は名詞。
⑦ how to make a speech ,  how to make speeches,
⑧ c
⑨ in
⑩ in public
⑪ He speaks not only in Pidgin but also Standard English.
⑫ a. Yes, I do.
    b. To have confidence and try to speak English in public is important.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

Waterfall, hill, valley, desert, ocean, peninsula, island, bay, shore, Brazilian, publish, surround, Shakespeare, bring up, climate, tropical, guard, enemy, shine, divide, pale, compare, signature, in public, toast, succeed, remove, landmine, vehicle, consider, proposal, region, mother tongue, deserve, plantation, consist, plus,
loanword, structure, majority, grammar, tend to, verb, tense, irregular, punishment, concept, translation,direct, standard, goose, bump, ancestor, unfortunately, pride, deal, variation, formal, understanding, a great deal of, status, smoothly, confidence, apparently, stretch, downward, gesture, definitely, possibly,from side to side, after all

文法のまとめ

★ 前置詞+関係代名詞 = 関係副詞
★ 意志の表し方
★ 関係副詞の非制限用法、制限用法

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