Lesson9 : [分詞の使い方色々]

Lesson9 : [分詞の使い方色々]

Lesson9の学習ポイント  分詞の使い方色々 A,B,C、D

A.S+V+分詞
( 過去分詞、現在分詞 )

S(主語)が「される場合は過去分詞」「する場合は現在分詞」
We sat talking for an hour.                  私達は座って1時間喋った。
We sat surrounded by many people.  私達は多くの人に囲まれ座った。

B.S+V+O+分詞
( 過去分詞、現在分詞 )

O(目的語)が「される場合は過去分詞」「する場合は現在分詞」
I had a bad tooth pulled out.     私は虫歯を抜いてもらった。
haveは使役動詞( lesson 2 参照)
I kept the fire burning.       私は火を燃やし続けた。

C分詞構文とは?

D.現在分詞の慣用表現

A,B,練習問題 (  )内の動詞を、現在分詞か過去分詞に変えて訳しましょう。

1. The boy came ( run ) into the room.
2. He stood ( wait ) for the bus.
3. I saw him ( walk ) across the road.
4. She has kept me ( wait ) for an hour.
5. I`ll have my photo ( take ).
6. I could not make myself ( understand ) in English.
7. She felt the earth ( shake ).
8. I heard my name ( call ).
9. I saw Tom ( call ) my name.
10. I had my shirt ( wash ).

正解と解説 :

1. running 少年は走りながら部屋に入ってきた。
2. waiting 彼は立ってバスを待っていた。
3. walking 私は彼が道を横切っているのを見た。
    ( 知覚動詞なのでwalk でも正解。)
4. waiting 彼女は私を1時間待たせた。
5. taken 私は写真を撮ってもらうでしょう。
6. understood 私の英語が通じなかった。
    ( 直訳;私自身を英語で理解させることが出来なかった。)
7. shaking 彼女は地球が揺れているのを感じた。
    ( 知覚動詞なのでshakeでも正解。)
8. called 私は自分の名前が呼ばれるのを聞いた。
    ( 名前は呼ばれるので過去分詞 )
9. call 私はトムが私の名前を呼んでいるのを見た。
    ( 知覚動詞なのでcall でも正解 )
10. washed 私はシャツを洗ってもらった。

C.分詞構文とは? 接続詞を使わず、文を短縮して書く文体。

①時(when, after, while)②原因理由(as, because, since )③付帯状況 ( and )の意味を表す。 ④分詞構文の否定文   ⑤完了分詞構文
When I was walking along the street, I came across a man with a dog.
= Walking along the street, I came across a man with a dog.

When the tower was seen from above, the tower looked like a pencil.
= ( Being ) seen from above, the tower looked like a pencil.  Being は省略。

As I was asked an unexpected question, I couldn`t come up with the answer.
=( Being ) asked an unexpected question, I couldn`t come up with the answer.

③The train starts at seven, arriving at Tokyo station at nine.
=The train starts at seven and arrived at Tokyo station at nine.

④As I didn`t know where to go, I first called at the tourist information center.
=Not knowing where to go, I first called at the tourist information center.
否定文の時はNot+ing

Having quit his job, a)John had plenty of time to study.
=Because John had quit his job, he had plenty of time to study.
a)「ジョンに 勉強する時間があった」過去の事実の前に仕事を辞めているのでhaving+過去分詞

D.     現在分詞の慣用表現

I went fishing in the river. 川へ釣りに行った。go+ ing
He was busy preparing for the exam. 彼は試験の準備で忙しかった。be+busy+ing

He spent two hours lying on the sofa.

 

彼はソファーに横たわり2時間過ごした。

spend+時間+ing

There are some people waiting outside. 外で待つ人が何人かいる。There+be+名詞+ing

練習問題  1~5は分詞構文に、6~10は接続詞のある文章に書き換えましょう。

1.Because she didn`t know what to do, she kept silent.
2.When I was waiting for my brother , I met Ken.
3.After he had finished his work, he went home.
4.He hit three home runs and scored eight runs.
5.As the letter is written in English, it is difficult for me to read.
6. Having failed again, I don`t want to try again.
7.Seen from here, the mountain is very nice.
8.Not knowing where to buy the ticket, I asked the clerk.
9.Feeling tired, he didn`t do anything.
10. Raising her hand, Mary stood up.

正解と解説 :
1. Not knowing what to do, she kept silent.
2. Waiting for my brother, I met Ken.
3. Having finished his work, he went home.
4. He hit three home runs, scoring eight runs.
5. Written in English, the letter is difficult for me to read.
6. As I failed again, I don`t want to try again.
7. When the mountain is seen from here, it is very vice.
8. As I didn`t know where to buy the ticket, I asked the clerk.
9. Because he felt tired, he didn`t do anything.
10. After Mary raised her hand, she stood up. ( Mary raised her hand and stood up.)

Ⅰ    以下の会話文を読んで指示に従いましょう。

Candy : Yuko!  ①Strange something happened last night.
Yuko   : What?!
Candy : Well, ②I was watching TV and suddenly I heard a noise.
            ③Turning off the TV, I went upstairs.Expecting to see a ghost, I was
            really ④( scared, scaring )…, but there was nobody there!
Yuko   : Oh, Candy! It was probably a window ⑤( banging, banged ), ⑥( blown, blowing ) by the window.
Candy : Hm. ⑦Actually told in the daytime, this story doesn`t sound so strange after all….

① 間違いを直しましょう。
② 分詞構文に書き直しましょう
③ 接続詞のある文章に書き換えましょう。
④⑤⑥ 正しい使い方の単語を選びましょう。
⑦ 接続詞のある文章に書き換えましょう。
⑧ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
    a.  Why did Candy go upstairs?
    b.  Did Candy see a ghost?
    c.  Have you ever seen a ghost?  If yes, please tell when and where.

正解と解説 :
① Something strange が正解です。 Somethingの修飾語は後置です。
② Watching TV, Suddenly I heard a noise.
③ After I turned off the TV, I went upstairs.
④ scared
⑤ banging
⑥ blown
⑦ As this story is told in the daytime, it doesn`t sound so strange after all…
⑧ a.  Because suddenly she heard a noise.
    b.  No, she didn`t.
    c.  No, I haven`t.  Yes, I have. I saw it when I was 10 in the park

Ⅱ 以下の長文を読んで指示に従いましょう。

               After the survivors recovered, the government sent them home in two Japanese ships,(①~と呼ばれる)the Hiei and the Kongo. Turkish people were greatly delighted あto meet the survivors(  ② ) they came home from Japan. They felt grateful (③) Japanese people ( ④ )their kindness. ⑤This event is known to the beginning of Japanese-Turkish friendship.
                  ⑥This event appeared in newspapers all over Japan. People ( ⑦ ) read the ( ⑧記事  ) also wanted いto help.One such person was Yamada Torajiro. He collected money う to help the families of the people ( ⑦  ) had lost their lives in the accident. It is said that the money (⑨ collect ) amounted えto about five thousand yen(⑩ one hundred million yen in today`s money).
                   ⑪Carrying the money, Mr.Yamada went to Istanbul in 1892. When he offered the money to the Turkish people, they were very pleased and thanked him. As the day passed, he found the Turkish people very(⑫ friend ). He ( ⑬ )( ⑬ )( ⑬ ) the local people and they asked him to stay in Turkey. He opened the first Japanese store in Turkey.⑭He also taught Japanese to Turkish sailors. He stayed in Turkey for almost 13 years before he returned Japan. Even many years after he left, people remembered the kind Japanese.
                  Sitting at opposite ⑮ends of the Silk Road, Turkey and Japan have a ( ⑯ )and (⑯) friendship.
The relationship has lasted over one hundred years.

① 日本語にしましょう。
② 適切な接続詞を入れましょう。
③④ 適切な前置詞を入れましょう。
⑤ 間違いがあります。訂正してください。
⑥ 具体的に何を指していますか?30字以内の日本語で説明しましょう。(句点は字数に入らず)
⑦ 適切な関係詞を入れましょう。
⑧ 英語で表しましょう。
⑨ 意味の通る形に変えましょう。
⑩ 数字で表しましょう
⑪ 接続詞を使って書き換えましょう。
⑫ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑬ 「 友達になった 」という意味の熟語を入れましょう。
⑭ 第4文型に書き換えましょう。
⑮ endが同じように使われている文章は以下の内どれでしょう?
    a.  This is the end of the story.
    b.  Turn to the right at the end of this way.
    c.  He won his end.
⑯ (  )に入る適当な形容詞を入れましょう。
⑰ hasの使い方が同じ文章は以下のどれでしょうか?
    a. He has been to Kyoto before.
    b. She has played the piano for one hour.
    c. She has finished her homework.
⑱ あ~えのto不定詞の中で用法が同じものはどれとどれ?
⑲ Answer the following question in English.
    What did Yamada do ? ( Please write at least 2 answers. )

正解と解説 :
① called
② when
③④ for
⑤ known as~が正解です。「~として知られている。」という意味です。
⑥ 日本政府が生存者をトルコに送り届けた事を、トルコ人が感謝した事。
⑦ who
⑧ article
⑨ collected
⑩ 100.000.000
⑪ As Mr.Yamada carried the money, he went to Istanbul in 1892.
⑫ friendly
⑬ made friends with
⑭ He also taught Turkish sailors Japanese.
⑮ b   「端」という意味。 a 「 終わり 」  c  「 目的 」
⑯ long  deep
⑰ b  現在完了の継続用法、 a.  経験   c. 完了
⑱ あ、う 副詞用法で正解。 い、 名詞用法 え、 amount to~~前置詞
⑲ He collected money to help the families of the people who had lost their lives in the accident.
    Carrying the money, he went to Istanbul in 1892.
    He made friends with the local people in Turkey.
    He opened the first Japanese store in Turkey.
    He taught Japanese to Turkish sailors.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

informal, unkind, nonsmoking, rewrite, charge, stand-stood, tap, pull, pull out, blow-blown, daytime,locate, tower, charming, come up with, silence, quit, plenty, call at, plenty of, situate, official, gateway,tile, provide, along with, survey, Asian, faraway, nephew, goodwill, in return, sink-sank, shelter,delight, be grateful to~, sailor, tough, shipping

文法のまとめ

★ 色々な分詞の使い方
★ 分詞構文
★ 現在分詞の慣用表現

 

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