Lesson8 : [不定詞の復習と不定詞の発展的用法]

Lesson8 : [不定詞の復習と不定詞の発展的用法]

Lesson8の学習ポイント

A.不定詞の復習

1.S+V+O+to~~

2.疑問詞+to~~

3.It~for~to~~, It~of~to~~

B.不定詞の発展的用法    

1.seem+to~~

2.to+have+過去分詞( 完了不定詞 )

A

1.
<S+V+O+to~構文によく使われる動詞>
advice, ask ,tell, order, want, would like, allow, force
She(S)  asked(V)   her husband(O)  to take out(to不定詞) the trash.   彼女は夫にごみを出すよう頼んだ。

.
< 疑問詞+to不定詞 >

how to~,  what to~,  when to~,  where to~,  which to~,  who(m) to~
Can you tell me which to buy?   どちらを購入したらいいか教えて下さる?

3.
< It~for~to~ >
It is important for you to be aware of the problem.  問題に気付く事が貴方にとって大切です。
for+人=to行為への評価 故に書き換えは出来ない。   You are important~~~.X

< It~of~to~ >
It is kind of you to help me.        私を助けてくれてあなたは優しいです。
of+人=to行為をする人への評価。故書き換え可。    You are kind to help me.
この構文によく使われる形容詞 : good, nice, clever, wise, foolish, polite, rude, brave, honest,

1.
<It seems to~, appear to~構文=It seems that~, It appears that~ >
He seems to dislike this book.                       彼はこの本を嫌いのようだ。
It seems that he dislikes this book.

She appears to know the answer.                    彼女は答えを知っているらしい。
It appears that she knows the answer.

2.
< It seems to have~=It seems that S+過去形V>
<It seemed to have+pp~( 完了不定詞 ) = It seemed that S+had+pp>

The bird seems to have left the nest.                鳥は巣を去ったようです。
It seems that the bird left  (has left) the nest.

She seemed to have made a mistake.                彼女はミスをしたようでした。
It seemed that she had made a mistake.

理解度確認問題

不定詞の使い方を理解しながら英作しましょう。

1. 医者はTomに週一回何か運動するようアドバイスをした。
2. 誰をパーティーに招待するか考えさせてくれ。
3. 私の兄が泳ぎ方を私に教えてくれた。
4. MaryさんはJohnを無理やり黙らせた。
5. 君たちが池の近くでサッカーをするのは危険です。
6. そのようなミスをするなんてあなたは愚かでした。( 2通り )
7. あなたに挨拶する為帽子を脱ぐ彼は礼儀正しいです。( 2通り )
8. 彼はうそを言ったようです。( 2通り )
9. 山田さんは彼に怒っているらしい。( 2通り )
10. 商人は若いときは金持ちだったようでした。( 2通り )

正解 :
1. The doctor advised Tom to do some exercise once a week.
2. Let me think about whom to invite to the party.
3. My brother taught me how to swim.
4. Ms. Mary forced John to hold his tongue.
5. It is dangerous to play soccer near the pond.
6. You were foolish to make such a mistake.
It was foolish of you to make such a mistake.
7. He is polite to take off his hat to greet you.
It is polite of him to take off his hat to greet you.
8. He seems to have told a lie.
    It seems that he told a lie.
9. Ms. Yamada appears to be angry with him.
    It appears that Ms. Yamada is angry with him.
10. The merchant appeared to have been rich when he was young.
      It appeared that the merchant had been rich when he was young.

不定詞、動名詞、分詞の復習問題 

次の英文の( )内の動詞を適当な形に変えましょう。

Yesterday I went (① buy ) a new dress. In the shop, I found a nice one ( ②make ) in Japan.
I was surprised ( ③know ) that it was more expensive than I ( ④expect ). I enjoyed ( ⑤do ) shopping.
And now I`m (⑥ look ) for a hat ( ⑦wear ).  Suddenly I see the door (⑧ open ). My friend is there and we are happy (⑨ see ) each other in the shop. Now I have to stop ( write ).

正解と解説 :
① to buy                不定詞の名詞的用法
② made                 分詞
③ to know                不定詞の副詞的用法
④ expected ( had expected ) 時制の一致 ( 大過去 )
⑤ doing                    enjoy +ing
⑥ looking                   現在進行形
⑦ to wear                   不定詞の形容詞的用法
⑧ open                     知覚動詞+目的語+動詞の原型
⑨ to see                    不定詞の副詞的用法
⑩ writing                   stop+ ing  ~するのをやめる。stop + to~~,~するために止まる。

試験に出るかも? 理解度確認テスト

Ⅰ 以下の手紙文を読んで指示に従いましょう。

Dear Mom and Dad,

Yesterday I went to Oxford! All by myself!  I asked Grandpa to tell me
 (① そこまでの行き方 ) , I ②rode the bus. ( ③最初 僕はどこへ行ったらいいかわからなかった)、
so I asked the man in the tourist information office ④what I do. He showed me how to get to some interesting places. Oxford is beautiful! I want to study ⑤there someday.

Love,
Kevin

P.S. I forgot my camera, so I`m sending you this postcard!

Dear Kevin,

Did you enjoy Oxford? ( ⑥カメラを忘れたなんて、不注意ね),but thank you (⑦) the postcard. It was kind ( ⑧ ) you (⑨ )send ⑩it. The colleges are so beautiful! Are you going to
Cambridge, too? Oxford people say Cambridge is the second best university in Britain.
Cambridge people say the same about Oxford!

Love
Mom and Dad

① 英作しましょう。
② 原型は?
③ 英作しましょう。
④ 間違いは?
⑤ there とは具体的に何を表していますか?日本語で答えましょう。
⑥ 英作しましょう。
⑦ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑧ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑨ 適語を入れましょう。
⑩ it とは何の事を指していますか?英語で答えましょう。
⑪ Answer the following questions in English.
    1.  To whom did Kevin send the letter?
    2.  What do people in Cambridge say about Oxford?

正解と解説 :
① how to get there
② ride
③ At first I didn`t know where to go
④ what to do  「何をしたらいいのか」
⑤ オックスフォード大学
⑥ It was careless of you to forget your camera 
⑦ for
⑧ of
⑨ to
⑩ postcard
⑪ a. He sent the letter to his parents.
    b. They say that Oxford is the second best university in Britain.

Ⅱ 以下の長文を読んで指示に従いましょう。

     The key (①) a joke is 1that it ends (②) something 2that is not expected by the listener. This part of the joke is called the “( ③ ) ” and usually comes at the end. The part before the ( ③  ) , which explains the situation and the characters, is called the “ ( ④ ).”( ⑤  ) are basically a simple kind of joke and are especially popular ( ⑥  ) children. This type
of joke uses a question-and answer format. Sometimes the question is logical while the answer is correct but unexpected. For example;

Question : Why do lions eat raw meat?
Answer :  Because they can`t cook.

     At first, the listener may try to think(⑦) a scientific or biological reason (⑧) lions eat raw meat.However, the listener probably does not imagine a lion (⑨ cook ) its meat. When the listener hears the answer, the image 3that is created—4that of a lion in a kitchen—is very amusing.  In this case, the question plays the role of the ( ④  ) ,and the answer works as the ( ③  ).
     Another popular type of ( ⑤ ) uses a “ what “ question. Often it presents pieces of information ⑩that seems to be impossible. Here is an example.

Question : What travels around the world but stays in one corner?
     Can you guess the answer? Of course, an object cannot both “ travel around the world “ and “ stay in one corner. “ However, there is an object 5that is put in the corner of an (⑪ ) or a (  ⑫ ).That ( ⑪ )—and the object—can travel around the world if the letter is sent to another country. Yes. Theanswer is “  A (  ⑬   ).”
     Many jokes use words or phrases 6that have two or more meanings. They draw humor from misunderstandings 7that may happen when such words are used. Take this joke , for example:
“ A man asks a hotel clerk, ` Please call me a taxi. `
She replies, “ Yes, sir. You are a taxi. “
          The phrase “ call me x “ can mean “ call x over for me, “ but it can also mean “ refer ( ⑭ ) me as x.” The man expects the clerk to understand the ⑮first meaning, but she uses⑯ the second.

① 前置詞を入れましょう。
② 前置詞を入れましょう。
③④ それぞれの空欄に入る適語の組み合わせはどれでしょうか?
    a.) ③setup  ④punchline   b.) ③punchline  ④setup
⑤ 空欄に入る適語は?
⑥ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑦ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑧ 適切な関係詞を入れましょう。
⑨ c適切な形に変えましょう。
⑩ 間違いが1か所あります。どれでしょうか?
⑪⑫⑬ それぞれに入る適語は?
⑭ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑮⑯ それぞれどのような意味ですか?簡単に日本語で説明しましょう。
    1~7that それぞれのthatの使い方を簡単に説明しましょう。
⑰ Answer the following questions in English.
    a.  What is the key to the joke? The answer is ; It ends (  ) the (   ) thing.
    (  )に適語を補充。
    b.  What do many jokes draw from misunderstandings?

正解と解説 :
① to
② with
③④ b
⑤ Riddles
⑥ with
⑦ of
⑧ why
⑨ cooking,  現在分詞に形を変えましょう。
⑩ seems ではなくseem, 主語はpieces of information複数形です。
⑪⑫⑬ envelope, postcard, stamp
⑭ to
⑮⑯ ⑮「私にタクシーを呼んでください。」という意味。
⑯ 「私の事をタクシーと呼んで。」という意味。
    1 補語(名詞節)を導く接続詞
    2 関係代名詞
    3 関係代名詞
    4 imageを指す代名詞
    5 関係代名詞
    6 関係代名詞
    7 関係代名詞
⑰ a.  It ends ( with ) the ( unexpected ) thing.
    b. They draw humor.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

seem, lunchtime, dislike, comedian, riddle, beyond, knowledge, nest, cellular phone, merchant, wealthy, saying, indeed, pleasant, atmosphere, listener, context, current, break the ice, punchline, setup, basically,format, logical, unexpected, raw, scientific, biological, amusing, misunderstanding, refer to A as B, call over,latter, rough, difficulty, pony, category, involve, bartender, response, partner, lie-lying, be about to~~,
alike, shorten, confuse, enjoyment, tunnel, undersea, wooden, conclusion, mega-, inch, private, cinema,value, quality, appropriate, compact, feature, no way, just as good, consumption, gear, basket, wire, flashing, brake,

文法のまとめ

★ 不定詞の発展的用法
★ 不定詞、動名詞、分詞の復習

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