Lesson11 : [仮定法の応用色々]

Lesson11 : [仮定法の応用色々]

Lesson11の学習ポイント
★学習ポイント : 仮定法の応用色々

A.  If節と主節で、時制が異なる場合
B.  実現の可能性が低い場合
C.  Ifの省略 ( 倒置 )
D.  If節に代わる表現
E.  仮定法の慣用表現

A

If you had not saved me then, I would not be alive now.If+S+仮定法過去完了、S+状動詞過去

もしもあの時あなたが私を助けなかったら、私は今生きていないだろう。
仮定法過去完了で過去の仮定を表現、仮定法過去で現在の仮定を表す。

B

 If Tom should visit me, tell him to wait ,please.   If+S+should~~,
万が一トムが訪ねて来たら、待っているように言って下さい。

If the sun were to rise in the west, I would not change my mind.   If+S+ were+ to~~,
たとえ太陽が西から上ったとしても、私は気持ちを変えないでしょう。

C

Had he given up, he would never have succeeded. =  If he had given up,………
もしも彼が諦めていたら、彼は成功しなかっただろう。

Should he come to see me, let me know at once.   =  If he should come to see me,…….
万が一彼が私に会いに来たらすぐに教えて。

D

Without your advice, he would have failed in his business.    Without = But for
But for your advice, he would have failed in his business.
あなたのアドバイスがなかったら、彼は事業に失敗していただろう。

 I took a taxi to the airport, otherwise I would have missed my flight.
飛行場までタクシーで行った。もしもそうしなかったら飛行機に乗り遅れていただろう。

An intelligent man would see something is strange about that story.
普通の文章中で仮定の意味を表す。
賢い人ならばその話がおかしいことは分かるだろう。

To see them together, you would think they were father and daughter.
To不定詞が仮定の意味を表す。
彼らを一緒に見れば、彼らが父と娘だと分かるだろう。

It is about time you woke up.      もう起きる時間ですよ。

He is, as it were( so to speak ), a walking dictionary.      彼はいわば生き字引です。

E

 If it were not for water, we could not survive.
= Without water, we could not survive. But for water, we could not survive. Were it not for water,…..
水がなかったら私達は生きていけないだろう。

 If it had not been for his help, I would have misunderstood the situation.
=Without his help, I would have~~~. But for his help, I would have~~. Had it not been for his help,
もし彼の助けがなかったら、私は状況を誤って判断していただろう。

If only you were here. = I wish you were here.
あなたがここにいてくれたらな~。

理解度確認問題

● 次の各組の文がほぼ同じ内容になるよう(  )に適語を入れましょう。

1. Without air and water, nobody could exist.
    If (   ) (    ) (    ) (     ) air and water, nobody could exist.
2. A wise man could do such a thing.
    If he (    ) a wise man, he could not do such a thing.
3. I didn`t tell him the story; otherwise he would have cried.
    I didn`t tell him the story. If I (   ) (    ) him the story, he would have cried.
4. If she had not advised him, he would not have succeeded.
    (    ) her advice, he would not have succeeded.
5. The sight of the accident would have made her faint.
    If (    ) (    ) (    ) the accident, she would have fainted.
6. If I were you, I would do the same.
    (   ) (   ) you, I would do the same.
7. As I didn`t have breakfast this morning, I am hungry now.
    If (   ) (    ) (    ) breakfast this morning, I (   ) (   ) be hungry now.
8. The doctor came soon, so the child didn`t die.
    If the doctor (   ) not (    ) soon, the child (    ) (     ) (    ).
9. I wish she would drive carefully.
    (   ) (    ) she would drive carefully.
10.If he had taken one more step, he would have fallen.
    (   ) (    ) step, and he would have fallen.

正解と解説;

1. it were not for
2.  were
3. had told
4. Without
5. she had seen
6. Were I
7. I had had  would not  仮定法過去完了と仮定法過去
8. had  come  would have died
9. If only
10. One more

 テストに出るかも?  復習問題 

以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。

 Ⅰ

 The Aboriginal Australians are , of course, the original inhabitants of Australia. ①( before, They,for at least 40,000 years ,  the continent,  had lived,  by the Europeans, was,  there,  colonized )in the (  ②  ) part of the 18th century. The arrival of the Europeans was catastrophic for the Aboriginal Australians. They had no ( ③ ) against the ( ④ ) ⑤( bring ) by the Europeans and many died in a veryshort time. (  ⑥  ) that Aboriginal Australians faced various diseases before that, but they knew(  ⑦   ) medicines that could cure them in the natural world around them. When they couldn`t cure a disease, they accepted death as the natural course of things. The settlers also took away Aboriginal land. The Aboriginal Australians had tremendous difficulty ⑧( maintain ) their traditional lifestyle.
        Even today, the aboriginal population has not adapted well ( ⑨  ) modern Australian society.⑩( in , impossible, modern Australian cities, find , life, Many ).( ⑪  )Aboriginal Australians (⑫) only 1% of the population in cities, they (⑫) 20 % of the population of isolated ( ⑬  ) communities. Such (  ⑬  ) isolation is associated (  ⑭ ) both higher levels of (  ⑮ ) and lower (   ⑯  ) among Aboriginal people.

①意味の通る文章に並び替えましょう。
②     「18世紀後半」という意味になるよう1語単語を入れましょう。
③④     空所に入る適語の組み合わせはどれでしょうか?
      a.  power  trouble    b.  right  duty     c.  immunity   diseases
⑤     適切な形に変えましょう。
⑥「なるほど~」という意味になるよう3語入れましょう。
⑦「見つけ方」という意味になるよう3語入れましょう。
⑧ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑨ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑩ 意味の通る文章に並び替えましょう。
⑪ 接続詞を入れましょう。
⑫「占める」という意味になるよう2語入れましょう。
⑬「urban」の反対語を入れましょう。
⑭ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑮⑯ 空所に入る適語の組み合わせはどれでしょうか?
    a,  employment  physical power       b,  unemployment  income level
⑰ Answer the following questions.
1.  Who is the Aboriginal Australians?
2.  When the Europeans arrived, why did many Aboriginal Australians die in a short time?
3.  Was it easy for the Aboriginal Australians to maintain their traditional lifestyle?
4.  Was it easy for the Aboriginal Australians to find jobs?

正解と解説;

① They had lived there for at least 40,000 years before the continent was colonized by the Europeans.
② latter
③④     c
⑤ brought
⑥ It is true
⑦ how to find
⑧ maintaining
⑨ to
⑩ Many find life in modern Australian cities impossible.
⑪ While
⑫ make up
⑬ rural
⑭ with
⑮⑯  b
⑰    
1.  They are the original inhabitants of Australia.
2.  Because they had no immunity against the diseases brought by the Europeans.
3.  No, it wasn`t.
4.  No, it wasn`t.

The government has taken other measure aiming at solve Aboriginal health problems, particularly among children. Since 2007, children ( ② ) have had to undergo health checks. ③If a family should not send any of its children for the (  ④  ) health check, the family ⑤( would , its welfare payment, lose,from the government). This has been effective (  ⑥  ). However, some parents end up not ⑦send their children for health checks in protest against the government`s (  ④  ) enforcement.
        Another scheme is the Nurse Family Partnership ( NPC ) ,⑧ launch in 2008. Nurses make regular visit to pregnant Aboriginal women and their families in their own homes. A good relationship can build up between (  ⑨   )and ( ⑨  ).⑩ As the nurse is seen as a friend, it`s easy for the families to ask questions or ⑪to get expert advise. Thus, it is easier for parents to access healthcare and to understand the causes of disease. One mother commented that ⑫without advice from the nurse, she would not have known( ⑬her baby, to, and, what, available, was , her, medical care ). ( ⑭ ) said that without the nurse telling her, she would not have realized ( ⑮  ).

① 間違いが3か所あります。書き出して訂正しましょう。
②「16歳以下の」という意味になるよう5語を入れましょう。
③ Ifを使わない表現に書き換えましょう。
④「強制的」という単語を入れましょう。
⑤ 意味の通る文章になるよう並び替えましょう。
⑥「ある程度まで」という意味になるよう4語を入れましょう。
⑦ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑧ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑨ 2つの( )に入る適語の組み合わせはどれでしょう?
a.  the doctor  the nurse      b.  the nurse   the children       c.  the parents  the nurse
⑩ 分詞構文に書き換えましょう。
⑪ 間違いが一か所あります。書き出して訂正しましょう。
⑫ Ifを使う節の文章に書き換えましょう。
⑬ 意味の通る文章になるよう並び替えましょう。
⑭ 適語を入れましょう。
⑮「彼女の子供の健康にとって喫煙がどれだけ危険なのか」という意味になるよう英作しましょう。
⑯ Please answer the following questions.
a.  How can the family get its welfare payment from the government?
b.  Why do nurses make regular visits to pregnant Aboriginal women and their families?
c.  Why is it easy for the families to ask questions or to get expert advice?

正解と解説;
 
① 1,measure→measures,  2,aiming→aimed,  3,solve→solving
② under the age of 16
③ Should a family not send any of its children for the compulsory check,
④ compulsory
⑤ would lose its welfare payments from the government
⑥ to a certain extent
⑦ sending   end up + ing
⑧  launched
⑨ c
⑩ The nurse ( being ) seen as a friend,
⑪ advice
⑫ if it had not been for advice from the nurse
⑬ what medical care was available to her and her baby
⑭ Another  前の文章の主語はOne mother. Oneに呼応するのはAnother.
⑮ how dangerous smoking was to the health of her child. 時制は過去です。

a. When a family send some of its children for the compulsory health check, it can.
b. To build up a good relationship.
c. Because the nurse is seen as a friend.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

medical, rank, reasonably, expectancy, statistics, female, inhabitant, colonize, arrival, catastrophic, immunity, cure, settler, tremendous, make up, isolate, rural, community, isolation, associate, unemployment, income, on average, grim, satisfactory, poverty, malnutrition, vulnerable, overall, if only, tempt, legacy,intervention, undertake, aim, undergo, welfare, payment, extent, enforcement, scheme, pregnant,thus, progress, illiteracy, proportion, education, stable, occupation, vicious, have difficulty+ing, but for,

文法のまとめ

★仮定法の応用

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