Lesson10 : [A,原級、B,比較級、C,否定+比較級、D,最上級の特別用法]

Lesson10 : [A,原級、B,比較級、C,否定+比較級、D,最上級の特別用法]

★学習ポイント : A,原級、B,比較級、C,否定+比較級、D,最上級の特別用法

A : <原級を用いた様々な表現>

1. Ben is not so much an artist as a scholar.
    not so much A as B.   AというよりBです。
    = Ben is a scholar rather than an artist.  Ben is more a scholar than an artist. 

2. Jack has as many as five hundred CDs.
    as many as~~      (可算)~もの

3. She paid as much as five hundred dollars for the painting.
    as much as~~ (不可算)~もの

B : 比較級を用いた様々な表現

1.Your English ability is superior to mine.    あなたの英語力は私より優れている。
A is superior to B.  AはBより優れている。

2.Your answer is inferior to mine.    貴方の答えは私のより劣っています。
A is inferior to B.   AはBより劣っている。

3.I prefer meat to fish.    私は魚より肉の方が好きです。
prefer A to B. AよりBが好きです。

4.Please show me a less expensive camera.    もう少し安いカメラを見せてください。 
littleの比較級less=not as expensive as~

5.She is the more attractive actress of the two.     彼女は2人の中でより魅力的な女優です。
the 比較級+of the two.

6.This is one meter longer than that.    これはあれより1メートル長いです。

7.I like him all the better for his faults.    欠点があるからなおさら彼が好きです。
all the + 比較級 + for ( because ) ~だからいっそう~ 

8.I can not speak English, much less French.    私は英語を話せない。ましてやフランス語はなおさらだ。
~~、much less~. ましてや~ぬ。

9.You should know better than to say such a thing.    そんな事を言ってはいけない事位分かるべきです。
know better than to~~  ~しない位の分別がある。

10.It is an hour`s ride, more or less.     車でだいたい1時間位です。
more or less  = almost  だいたい 

11.Sooner or later you will rise in the world.    遅かれ早かれあなたは出世します。
sooner or later  遅かれ早かれ 

12.She is more shy than cold.    彼女は冷たいというよりは恥ずかしがり屋です。
more +原級+than+原級   他の物との比較ではなく同じものの中での比較。

C : 否定 + 比較級を用いた構文> 

1.  I have no more than 1000yen.= only    私はたった1000円だけしかない。

2.  I have no less than 1000yen.= as many ( much )as    私は1000円も持っています。
( どちらも持っている金額は1000円だが表現の仕方が違う。)

3.  I have not more than 1000yen.= at most    私はせいぜい1000円しか持ってない。
(   1000円は持っていない ) 

4.I have not less than 1000yen. = at least    私は少なくとも1000円は持っている。
(   1000円以上持っている )

5.  He is no more diligent than you ( are ).    彼はあなた同様勤勉ではない。
A is no more ~~than B.  Aが~でないのはBが~でないのと同じです。

6.  He is no less diligent than you ( are ).     彼はあなた同様勤勉です。
A is no less ~~ than B.   Aが~であるのはBが~であるのと同じです。

 D : <最上級を用いた色々な表現>

1.  This is the least interesting novel I`ve ever read.
the least + 形容詞、副詞=程度が最も低い状態を表す。

2.  This lake is deepest here.
この湖と他の湖を比べてはいない故 the はつけない。

This lake is the deepest in Japan.
他の湖と比べているので the をつける。

3.  We have at most 10 days before the next exam.
(多くても)  次の試験まで10日しかない。

4.  It takes at least 2 hours to go there.



2.100人もの人がそのパーティーに参加した。( 2通り )
12.彼はせいぜい20歳でしょう。( 2通り )

正解と解説 :

1. He is not so much a genius as a hard worker. not so much A as B  構文
2.  As many as 100 people attended the party.  
No less than 100 people attended the party. as many as = no less than
3. Mary is the shorter of the two.  
4. He is more shy than timid.  
5. I like her all the better for her cheerfulness.  
6. He is three years junior to I(me).  
  He is three years younger than I( me).  
7. He is no less bright than his father. no less A than B
8. I was no more excited than you were. no more A than B
9.  This product is superior to that in quality.  
This product is better than that in quality.  
10. You should know better than to make the same mistakes.  
11. Cherry blossoms are most beautiful at this time of the year.  
12  He is twenty years old, at most. at most = not more than
He is not more than 20 years old.  

試験に出るかな? 理解度確認問題


         Today, detailed maps of almost ( ① ) part of the world are (  ②  ) at ( ① ) time. This has not been the ( ③  ). Many centuries ago, maps were ( ④ ) and ( ⑤ ) more precious. Thousands of years ago, there were hardly ( ① ) maps at all. The history of mapmaking is closely (  ⑥ ) (  ⑥ ) the history of human civilization and human knowledge. ( ⑦ a group of people, knew , what, show, at the time, maps, in a particular area ). They reveal ⑧that group`s perspective on the world, their knowledge of the terrain, and their priorities.
       ⑨The first known maps of the world are find on Babylonian clay tablets dating from around 600B.C. Babylonian grew various crops and ⑩exported their surplus agricultural products to neighboring areas to trade for other goods. ⑪Because of the success of their trade, they wanted to know more about their surroundings. People in these ancient times believed that the Earth was flat and ( ⑫ ) their lands were circular. In this early Babylonian world map, Babylon is ( ⑬ ) at the center. The circles on the map show the major cities. The lines show rivers and the large circles around the cities is the ocean, ( ⑭  )they called the “ bitter river.”

① 共通の単語が入ります。どれでしょう?
    a.  any          b.  some         c. no
②「 手に入る 」という意味の形容詞を入れましょう。
③ 適語を入れましょう。
④ 適語を選びましょう。
    a.  expensive     b.  small         c. rare
⑤ more を強調する単語は?
⑥「~と関係している 」 という意味になるよう空欄を埋めましょう。
⑦ 意味の通る文章になるよう並べ替えましょう。
⑧ 具体的に何を指しているのか日本語で説明しましょう。
⑨ 間違いが一か所あります。どれでしょうか?
⑩ 反対の意味の単語は?
⑪ S+Vの文章(節)に書き換えましょう。
⑫ 適語を入れましょう。
⑬ 「 位置している 」という意味になるよう適語を入れましょう。
⑭ 適語を入れましょう。
⑮ Answer the following questions in English.
    a.  Were there many maps many centuries ago?
    b.  Where are the first known maps of the world found?
    c.  What kind of idea did people in these ancient times have?

正解と解説 :
① a   anyは「どこでも、いつでも、」の意味。否定文の中でsome はany.
② available
③ case 「 必ずしもいつでもこうではなかった。」という意味の構文。
④ c
⑤ much
⑥ related to
⑦  Maps show what a group people in a particular area knew at the time.
⑧ ある特定の地域に住む人のグループ
⑨ found
⑩ imported
⑪ Because their trade succeeded,
⑫ that   believed that ~~~and ( that )  接続詞のthat
⑬ placed
⑭ which   関係代名詞 のwhich 、カンマがあるのでwhichのみ。
⑮ a.  No, there were not.
    b.  They are found on Babylonian clay tablets dating from around 600 B.C.
    c.  They believed that the Earth was flat and that their lands were circular.

        During the Renaissance, two major developments led to huge advancements in the (  ①  )and(  ② ) of maps in the West.
        The first was the Age of Discovery, the period from the 15th to the 17th centuries (  ③  )(   ④   )explorers from Europe traveled the globe and made contact ( ⑤ ) all the continents. Spain and Portugal led this activity. Many of the ships had mapmakers on board who carefully noted the characteristics of each area⑥they visited. This was particularly important ⑦as empires started ⑧establish colonies in remote parts of the world.
        The second development was the invention of the printing press, which allowed large numbers of people to share ever more detailed and accurate maps. In this age, ⑨with intellectual curiosity throughout the world increasing, there was a distinct shift in maps from the ( ⑩  ) to the ( ⑩  ). The greater emphasis ( ⑪ ) scientific knowledge also helped spread the idea that (     ⑫      ).

①② (  )に入る適語はどれでしょうか?
    a.  price , clearness       b.   accuracy , availability      c.  usefulness ,  importance
③④ 適語を入れましょう。
⑤ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑥ 具体的に誰を表していますか?日本語で答えましょう。
⑦ as が同じ使い方をされている文章はどれでしょうか?
    a.  As we went up, the air grew colder.
    b.  As she was listening to the news, she was trembling.
    c,  As I was late, I took a bus.
    d.  Please do as I do.
⑧ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑨ 節に書き換えましょう。
⑩ 適語はどれでしょうか?
    a.  culture , science       b. the drawing , the picture    
    c.  the religious , the mathematical
⑪ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑫ どんな考え方だったでしょうか?英文を書きましょう。
⑬ Answer the following questions in English
    What enabled many people to share detailed and accurate maps?

正解と解説 :
①② b
③④ during which    「その間に」という意味になる前置詞+関係代名詞
⑤ with
⑥ スペイン人とポルトガル人
⑦ c  理由を表すas
⑧ establishing  start + ing
⑨ As intellectual curiosity throughout the world increased, 「~するにつれて」
⑩ c
⑪ on
⑫ the Earth was round, not flat
⑬ The invention of the printing press.


detailed, mapmaking, relate, civilization, reveal, perspective, clay, tablet, surplus, surrounding, circular,advance, philosopher, sphere, scholar, in relation to~, latitude, longitude, afterward, prevail, accurate,development, flourish, trader, stimulate, explore, advancement, accuracy, availability, explore, globe, board, characteristic, remote, invention, intellectual, navigate, distort, pole, account, improvement, more or less, satellite, precise, hopefully, indication, quest, staple, double, dependent, emigrate, famine,be superior to~~, not so much A as B, much less, know better than to do~, more B than A, no more…than~~, no less…than ~~, no less than~~, no more than~~, not more than~~, not less than~~, at (the )most,


★ 原型、比較級、最上級、を用いた様々な表現。
★ 接尾語で単語量を増やそう。

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