Lesson7 : [分詞の応用色々 ]

Lesson7 : [分詞の応用色々 ]

Lesson7の学習ポイント 分詞の応用色々

A.have(get)使役動詞+目的語+現在分詞
B.There+be動詞+名詞+分詞
C.①独立分詞構文、②分詞構文の慣用表現、③接続詞+分詞構文
D.With+(代)名詞+分詞

「 Stage 2 lesson 9」「 Stage 3 lesson 9 」で分詞、分詞構文の基本を学びました。
基本を忘れているようでしたら、stage 2,3 に戻り復習しましょう。

A.We can`t have John speaking like that .   ジョンをその様に話させておく事はできない。

B.  There were harder times coming after that.   その後より不景気な時代が来るのであった。

C.①独立分詞構文; 分詞の意味上の主語が主文の主語と異なる場合、分詞の前に意味上の主語を置く。
Weather permitting, we`ll climb Mt.Fuji.    天気が良ければ富士山に登るでしょう。
If weather permits, we`ll climb Mt.Fuji.

All things considered, life was hard for the poor.    すべてを考慮して、貧しい人に
If all things were considered, life was hard for the poor.    生活は厳しかった。

②分詞構文の慣用表現
Frankly speaking,
this makes you look fat.    率直に言ってこれを着ると君は太って見える。
Judging from this, he must be a rich person.   これから判断すると彼は金持ちにちがいない。
その他・・・・・・・・・・・generally speaking, strictly speaking, speaking of~~, considering~~,

③接続詞+分詞構文
While waiting
, I was singing.  待つ間、私は歌を歌っていた。

D.The ambulance came with its lights flashing.   救急車はライトを点滅させながら来た。
I waited with my eyes closed.    私は目を閉じたまま待った。

理解度確認問題

A( )の動詞を現在分詞か過去分詞にして、訳しましょう。

1. A ( drown ) man will catch at a straw.
2. She left her baby ( sleep ) in bed.
3. We can`t have you ( smoke ) at your age.
4. There were only a few students ( leave ) in the room.
5. All things ( consider ), I think he is right.
6. She heard her name ( call ) in the waiting room.
7. I would like my eggs ( boil ).
8. There were many people ( come ) and ( go ) on the street.
9. I spent the whole day ( write ) a letter.
10. He seemed ( please ) at my words.

正解と解説 :
1. drowning      溺れる者は藁をもつかむ。
2. sleeping      彼女は赤ちゃんをベッドに寝かせたままにした。
3. smoking       あなたの年で煙草を吸わせておくわけにはいかない。
4. left          部屋にはほんの数人生徒が残っていた。
5. considered    すべてを考慮して、彼は正しいと思う。
6. called        彼女は待合室で自分の名前が呼ばれるのを聞いた。
7. boiled        私はゆで卵が好きです。
8. coming going  通りを多くの人が行き来していた。
9. writing       私は一日中手紙を書いて過ごした。
10. pleased      彼は私の言葉に喜んだ様子でした。

B 下線部を分詞構文に書き換えましょう。

1. As night came on, we left for home.
2. His conduct is childish if we consider his age.
3. We will go on a picnic if the weather permits.
4. As there was no bus service, we had to walk.
5. When the sun had set, it became dark.
6. The car failed to start, so he went to work by bus.

正解と解説 :
1. Night coming on, we left for home.                夜になったので、私達は帰路に着いた。
2. His conduct is childish, considering his age.         年を考えれば彼の行為は子供っぽいです。
3. We will go on a picnic, weather permitting.          天気が良ければピクニックに行くでしょう。
4. There being no bus service, we had to walk.   バスがなかったので、私達は歩かざるを得なかった。
5. The sun having set , it became dark.                  日が暮れて暗くなった。
6. The car failing to start, he went to work by bus.   車で出かけられず、彼はバスで仕事に行った。

C 下線部を節で表しましょう。

1. The work done, we cleaned the room.
2. Not knowing where to go, he was at a loss.
3. Strictly speaking, this sentence is incorrect.
4. There being nothing to do, we went home.
5. It being Sunday, there was no school.

正解と解説 :
1. When the work was done, we cleaned the room.
2. As he didn`t know where to go, he was at a loss.
3. If we speak strictly, this sentence is incorrect.
4. As there was nothing to do, we went home.
5. As it was Sunday, there was no school.

B,C、それぞれ、分詞の主語、主文の主語が異なる文章なので、独立分詞構文⇔節の書き換え問題です。

 試験に出るかも? 復習問題

  以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。

 
I was a friend of Bartolomeo Vanzetti. Perhaps his only American friend. One day in August 1927,I visited Vanzetti in prison. We talked for some time and ①I left the prison after saying goodbye to Vanzetti.
(② 二度と彼に会うことはなかった。) A few days later, on August 23, 1927, Bartolomeo Vanzetti and his friend , Nicola Sacco, were executed for (③ 強盗と殺人 ).
       I first met Vanzetti when he moved to the US from Italy. It was about 1908 and we were both twenty years old. Sacco was also an immigrant from Italy. Sacco was a shoemaker and Vanzetti sold fish. ( ④  ) man made much money.
       All things (⑤consider ), life was hard for poor immigrants at the time. Life was hard for everyone and there were harder times (⑥ come ) after World War Ⅰ.⑦There were a few jobs available and competition for them was fierce. Many Americans were afraid that immigrants were taking their jobs. They wanted to end immigration.
       People were also afraid of anarchism, the political idea that laws and governments are not necessary. The US government considered anarchists ( ⑧ danger  ). Vanzetti and Sacco were anarchists.
The government must watch them closely.

① 節の文章に書き換えましょう。
② to不定詞を使って英作しましょう。またこの不定詞を同じ使い方をしている文章を選びましょう。
    a.  You are to stay here until I come back.
    b.  The meeting is to be held at three.
    c.  The boy was never to see his home again.
    d.  No one was to be seen in the street.
③ 英語に直しましょう。
④「  両者ともたいして儲からなかった。」という意味になるよう空欄に1語入れましょう。
⑤ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑥ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑦ 間違いが1か所あります。訂正しましょう。
⑧ 適当な形に変えましょう。
⑨「 政府は彼らを厳重に見張っていたに違いない。」という意味になるよう書き換えましょう。
⑩ Answer the following questions in English.
    a.  How old was Vanzetti when he moved to the US?
    b.  What was Sacco making ?
    c.  What were many Americans afraid of?
    d.  What is anarchism?

 正解と解説 :
① I left the prison after I said goodbye to Vanzetti.
② I was never to see him again.
    c
    a  義務、 b  予定、 c  運命、 d  可能
③ robbery and murder
④ Neither
⑤ considered
⑥ coming
⑦ a few ではなく few.  「ほとんど仕事がなかった。」という意味。
⑧ dangerous   SVOC構文です。
⑨ The government must have been watching them closely.
⑩ a  He was twenty.
    b.  He was making shoes.
    c.  They were afraid that immigrants were taking their jobs.
    d.  It is the political idea that laws and governments are not necessary.


      The trial of Vanzetti and Sacco ( ① ) about seven weeks, but finally the jury left the courtroom to ( ② ). ③While waiting for their decision, I felt sure that my friend would be found (  ④  ). The jury talked for three hours. After ⑤that they had dinner. Then they came back into the courtroom. I waited ( ⑥眼を閉じて ) I was saying a ( ⑦ ). However, the jury had decided that both men were ( ⑧ ).
      I was shocked. ( ⑨ ) were people all over the world, of all nationalities and political beliefs. When the two were found ( ⑧ ), there were demonstrations all over the United States, and even in Europe.⑩I heard people to say that the decision to execute them was based on (  ⑪  ) against them as immigrants and (  ⑫  )( ⑫  ) their political views.
People demonstrated and protested the decision, ⑬demanding farther investigation and more time in court.
But nothing changed and on August 23, 1927 my friend was sent to the electric chair.

①② に入る動詞を以下から選びましょう。尚文章に合わせて時制も合わせましょう。
    end,  decide,  finish,  speak,  last, eat,  deliberate,
③ 節のある文章に書き換えましょう。
④⑧ それぞれに入る形容詞の組み合わせが正しいものを選びましょう。選択肢の形容詞は④⑧の順番です。
    a.  (  innocent, guilty  )    b  (  guilty,  innocent  )  c  (  wrong ,  right  )
⑤ 具体的に何を指しているのか日本語で説明しましょう。
⑥ 英作しましょう。
⑦「祈りをささげていた。」という文章になるよう適当な単語を入れましょう。
⑨「世界中の人もまた、」という意味になるよう適語を入れましょう。
⑩ 1か所間違いがあります。訂正しましょう。
⑪「偏見」という単語を入れましょう。
⑫「~により」という熟語を入れましょう。
⑬ 1か所間違いがあります。訂正しましょう。
⑭ 以下の質問に英語で答えましょう。
    a.  When the two were found guilty, what did people do ?
    b.  Why did the jury decide to execute them?

正解と解説 :
① lasted
② deliberate
③ While I was waiting for their decision,
④ a
⑤ 陪審団が3時間話し合った事。
⑥ with my eyes closed
⑦ prayer
⑨ So
⑩ I heard people say が正解。知覚動詞hear +人+動詞原型
⑪ prejudice
⑫ because of
⑬ farther は距離を表すfarの比較級、この場合は程度を表すfurの比較級further が正解です。
⑭ a.  People demonstrated and protested the decision.
    b.  Because of prejudice against them as immigrants and their political views.

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

goodbye, execute, robbery, shoemaker, available, fierce, immigration, anarchism, closely, payroll,robber, affair, accuse, attempt, witness, swear-swore, guilty, come one`s way, bookkeeper, identify, briefly, defense, evidence, amazingly, prosecution, jury, gunshot, kind of~~, bullet, courtroom, deliberate, shock, nationality, belief(s), prejudice, demonstrate, investigation, execution, guilt,absolute, proof, anniversary, memorial, judging from~~, loan, unconscious, pub, maximum, sometime,decline, permit, weather permitting, frankly speaking, generally speaking, strictly speaking, speaking of~~, talking of~~, considering~~,

文法のまとめ

★ 分詞の応用
★ be動詞+said to be~~の書き換え

The cap was said to be Sacco`s .  =  It was said that the cap was Sacco`s.
=  They said that the cap was Sacco`s.
Mary is said to open the shop.  =  It is said that Mary opens the shop.
=  They say that Mary opens the shop

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