Lesson8 : [関係詞の応用]

Lesson8 : [関係詞の応用]

Lesson8の学習ポイント 関係詞の応用

A. 句や節を先行詞にするwhich, who ( 関係代名詞の非制限用法)
B. 先行詞の一部を補足説明するwhich, whom.
C. 関係詞what の慣用表現
D. 関係形容詞
E. 関係代名詞の後に挿入節

A : 関係代名詞の非制限用法

①I tried to get in touch with Tom, who was taking a bath.
トムと連絡を取ろうとしたが、入浴中だった。

②The church, which was built in 1916, needs repairing.
その教会は1916年に建てられ修理の必要がある。

③I said nothing, which made my sister angry.
私は何も喋らなかったので姉は怒った。

①カンマがない場合は、「入浴中のトムに私は連絡を取ろうとした。」と訳が変わります。
②カンマがない場合は、「1916年に建てられた教会は修理の必要がある。」になります。
③先行詞は「I said nothing.」です。

B : 先行詞の一部を補足説明するwhich, whom

①He has many books, some of which I`ve already read.
彼は沢山本を持っていてその幾つか私はもう読んだ。

②There are a lot of excellent students, some of whom may win the Nobel Prize in the future.
沢山の優秀な生徒がいてその内の何人かは将来ノーベル賞を受賞するかもしれない。  

C : 関係詞whatの慣用表現

① Japan now is not what it was 50 years ago.                      
② Wind power is what is called clean energy.
③ He is a good artist and , what is more, a good teacher.
④ An engine is to a car what a heart is to a human body.     ( A is to B what C is to B.)
⑤ What with cleaning my room and ( what with ) washing the dishes, I was busy all day long.

① 今の日本は50年前の日本ではない。
② 風力はいわゆるクリーンエネルギーです。
③ 彼は優れた芸術家で、さらに教えるのも上手い。
④ エンジンと車の関係は心臓と人の体と同じです
⑤ 部屋の掃除やら皿を洗ったりで、私は1日中忙しかった。

D : 関係形容詞

①  He gave the poor boy what little money he had .
彼はその貧しい少年になけなしのお金をあげた。

②  I read what books are available.         私は手に入る本は何でも読む。

①② what +( little, few ) + 名詞 の「what 」はany allの意味が含まれる。

E : 関係代名詞の後に挿入節

①  The man who I thought was cruel proved to be gentle.
②  The man whom I thought to be cruel proved to be gentle.

①  I thought the man was cruel. The man proved to be gentle.
この2文が関係代名詞で①の文に。
②  I thought the man to be cruel.  The man proved to be gentle.
この2文が関係代名詞で②の文に。

理解度確認問題

 1. 次の文章の( )に適切な関係代名詞を入れましょう。

1. The girl lost (    ) little money she had.
2. There are few places for parking, (    ) is really a problem.
3. It is often said that rice is to Asia (   ) wheat is to Europeans.
4. (    ) with dishes to wash and children to put to bed, I was late for the meeting.
5. I owe (   ) I am today to him.
6. I gave him (   ) help I could.
7. She said she had lost her ring, (    ) was not true.
8. John is the boy (    ) I think is wrong.
9. I met a man (    ) I believed to be honest turned out guilty.
10. He is a foreigner, (    ) is clear from his accent.
11. It` s a useful book, and (    ) is more, it`s quite cheap.
12. Mary has many friends, some of (   ) belong to the same club as she does.

正解と解説 :
1. what  なけなしのお金
2. which 「 駐車する場所がほとんどない」が先行詞
3. what 「  A is to B what C is to D  」の構文
4. What 「 what with A ,and ( what with ) B 」の構文
5. what what I am = 今の私
6. what what + 名詞 = ~するすべての(関係形容詞)
7. which 「 彼女が指輪をなくしたと言った 」が先行詞
8. who I think the boy is wrong. 故に who
9. whom I believe a man to be honest. 故に whom
10. which 「 彼は外国人です 」が先行詞
11. what what is more  = さらには
12. whom many friends の内何人か

テストに出るかも?  復習問題

以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。


A simple ②reversal of angles dramatically changes ( ①  ) we see in the illustration. The same perceptual changes occur when we ( ② ) our ( ③  ) thinking patterns about ( ④   ) and ( ④  ). When Henry Ford went into the automobile business, the ( ③ ) thinking was ⑤that you had to “ bring people to the work.” He (  ②  ) this to (  ⑥  ) and accomplished his goal (⑦ ) inventing the assembly line.
Suppose you built a house using a “ yard “ stick ( ⑧ ) was actually an inch short. If you ⑨assume that it was a full yard and used it to measure everything you built, then everything ⑩will be wrong, and your ceilings, doors, and windows ⑩will be too ( ⑪ ). If you had started by questioning the measuring stick, (⑫ 問題はなかったでしょうに。) It is the same with all problems: If you start with ( ⑬ ) assumption,your solutions will be poorly constructed.

① 関係代名詞を入れましょう。
② 形容詞reversal の動詞形を入れましょう。
③ 空所に入る適語はどれでしょうか?
    a.  original       b.  new       c.  conventional
④ 空所に入る語の組み合わせとしてどれが一番適当でしょう?
    a.  problems, solutions     b.  problems , situations       c.  assumptions, solutions
⑤ that が同じように使われているのは、以下の文章のどれでしょうか?
    a.   This is the watch that you gave me last year.
    b.   He said that he had a hard time.
    c.   Did you hear the news that he got married?
    d.   The fact is that I made a mistake.
⑥ 下線⑥の文章を参考に、文意に沿って6語で英作しましょう。
⑦ 適当な前置詞を入れましょう。
⑧ 適切な関係代名詞を選びましょう。
    a.  whose     b. that     c. what     d.  who
⑨ 適切な形に変えましょう。このままでいい場合はそのままの形を書きましょう
⑩ 適切な形に変えましょう。このままでいい場合はそのままの形を書きましょう
⑪ 空所に入る適語はどれでしょう?
    a.   low        b,  wide       c,  narrow
⑫ 英作しましょう。
⑬ 空所に入る適語はどれでしょうか?
    a.   correct     b.  new        c.  incorrect
⑭ Answer the questions in English.
    a.   Who invented the assembly line?
    b.   If we built a house using a “ yard” stick which was an inch long, what would happen to our ceilings?
    c.   If we want to build a nice and correct house, what should we do first?

正解と解説 :
① what
② reverse
③ c
④ b
⑤ d  補語を導く接続詞that です. a 関係代名詞  b. 動詞sayの目的語を導く接続詞  c 同格
⑥ bring the work to the people
⑦ by
⑧ b
⑨ assumed  仮定法過去
⑩ would    仮定法過去
⑪ a
⑫ there would have been no problem.  仮定法過去完了
⑬ c
⑭ a.  Henry Ford did.
    b.  It would be too high.
    c.  We should start by questioning the measuring stick.


I put so much emphasis ( ① ) ( ②challenge ) assumptions to show that any assumption can
be (③ challenge ). For example,(  ④  ) the illustration of the nine dots, many people assume you cannot link all nine dots ( ⑤ ) one straight line. You can, and you can do it in several different ways: One way is cut out the dots, line them up in a straight line, and then draw a line through it ( below ); ( ⑥ ) is to take a large brush, dip it in paint and swipe it across all the dots.
Obviously, ⑦ ( for, many things , to. be, taken, have, granted ), and the purpose is not to
pretend that one has the time to challenge every assumption,(  ⑧ ) instead to show nothing is sacrosanct.
( ⑨ ) you truly realize this, you are open to all sorts of discoveries. Imagine (⑩ everyone assumes, diving,is freezing, into a lake, that, and, warm water, discovering balmy, . ,) ⑪By you jump, you will never know for sure.

① 前置詞を入れましょう。
② 正しい形に変えましょう。
③ 正しい形に変えましょう。
④「~に関して」3語で表してください。
⑤ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑥「別の方法」という意味になる代名詞を1語入れましょう。
⑦ 意味の通る文章に並び替えましょう。
⑧ 適語を入れましょう。
⑨「いったん~すれば」という意味の接続詞を入れましょう。
⑩ 意味の通る文章に並び替えましょう。
⑪ 間違いが1か所あります。訂正しましょう。
⑫ Answer the following questions in English.
    a.  Do you realize that you are open to all sorts of discoveries?
    b.  Have you ever dived into a lake?

正解と解説 :
① on
② challenging  現在分詞
③ challenged   受動態の過去分詞
④ in regard to
⑤ with
⑥ another
⑦ many things have to be taken for granted
⑧ but    not~~but  構文
⑨ Once
⑩ diving into a lake that everyone assumes is freezing and discovering balmy, warm water.
⑪ By ではなくて Until
⑫ a.  Yes, I do. ( No, I don`t. )
    b.  No, I haven`t.  (  Yes, I have.  )

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

illustration, bound, arrow-like, angle, perception, illusion, potentially, reversal, dramatically, perceptual,conventional, automobile, accomplish, assembly, yard, incorrect, assumption, poorly, basic, fundamental,far-away, be supposed to do~~, hold up, guarantee, validity, reassess, at times, false face, immutable,dot, no more than~~, extend, applicant, consistently, hinder, knob, redefinition, preclude, numerous,emphasis, in regard to~~, dip, swipe, fate==for granted, pretend, sacrosanct, dive, balmy, viewer, automatically, comparison, measurement, horizontal, parallel, diagonal, genius, outer, different-sized,
optical, so far, grow-grew-grown, what S was( used to be), what is called, what is more, do the wash,A is to B what C is to D, what with A and ( what with )B,

文法ポイントのまとめ

★ 1 関係代名詞の非制限用法
★ 2 先行詞の一部について補足説明をする
★ 3 関係代名詞whatの慣用表現
★ 4 関係形容詞
★ 5 関係代名詞の後に挿入節( I think, I believe等 )

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