Lesson9 : [複合関係代名詞、関係副詞とは?]

Lesson9 : [複合関係代名詞、関係副詞とは?]

Lesson9の学習ポイント
複合関係代名詞、関係副詞とは?「that、why以外の関係詞に「~ever 」が付いた形。
whichever, whoever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however

<使い方>
A.  名詞節を作る。
B.  副詞節( 譲歩 )を表す。    no matter + ( which, who, what )に書き換え。
C.  副詞節( 時や場所 )を表す。
D.  副詞節( 譲歩 )を表す。  no matter + ( when, where, how )に書き換え。

A : 名詞節を作る複合関係代名詞;whoever, whichever, whatever

1. Whoever wants to come may be welcomed. 来たい人は誰でも歓迎されるでしょう。
=Anyone who ( that ) wants to come may be welcome.
文の主語

2. You can buy whichever you want to read.  読みたいものはどれでも買えます。
buyの目的語

3.They are interested in whatever they see.  見るもの何にでも彼らは興味を持つ。
They are interested in anything that they see.
inの目的語

B : 譲歩を表す副詞節を作る複合関係代名詞; whoever, whichever, whatever
= no matter who, no matter which, no matter what

1. Whoever does the job, it will take a whole day.  誰がその仕事をやろうと、丸1日かかるでしょう。
=No matter who does the job, it will take a whole day.

2. Whichever you buy, the price will be 50%off.     どちらを買って、値段は50%オフです。
No matter which you buy, the price will be 50% off.

3.Whatever happens, Jack will never give up.      何が起ころうとも,ジャックはあきらめないでしょう。
=No mater what happens, Jack will never give up.

C : 時や場所を表す副詞節を作る複合関係副詞 : whenever, wherever

1. Call me whenever it is convenient for you.       都合のいい時いつでも電話して。
Call me ( at ) any time ( when ) it is convenient for you.

2.  You can sit wherever you like.                  どこでも好きなところに座ってください。
You can sit ( at ) anyplace ( where ) you like.

D : 譲歩を表す副詞節を作る複合関係代名詞 : whenever, wherever, however
= no matter when, no matter where, no matter how,

1.   The doctor accepts patients whenever they come.  何時来ようとも、医者は患者を受けいれます。
The doctor accepts patients no matter when they come.

2.    I`ll be your friend wherever you are.              あなたがどこにいて,私はあなたの友達です。

3.    However poor she may be, she is happy.           どんなに貧しくても、彼女は幸せです。
No mater how poor she may be, she is happy.

理解度確認問題

1. 以下の英文の( )から正しい語を選びましょう。

a. I`ll give the cat (  whoever,  whenever  ) wants them.
b. You can buy (  whoever,  whichever  ) you like.
c. (  Whatever,  Whoever ) comes can enjoy the party.
d. Come and see me ( wherever,  whenever ) you can.
e. (  Whatever,  However ) hard you may try, you won`t finish the work in a week.
f. I`ll follow you ( whichever, wherever ) you go.
g. (  However,  Whatever ) happens, I won`t change my mind.
h. He told the story to (  whoever,  whomever ) would listen.
i. He told the story to (  whoever, whomever ) he met.
j. ( Whenever ,  Wherever ) my mother is out, I have to cook lunch.

正解と解説 :
a. whoever 欲しい人誰にでも猫をあげます。
b. whichever 好きな方どちらでも購入できます。
c. Whoever 来る人は誰でもパーティーを楽しめます。
d. whenever 何時でもいいから、来られるときに会いに来て。
e. However どんなに一生懸命頑張っても、一週間で仕事を終えられないでしょう。
f. wherever あなたがどこへ行こうとも私は付いていきます。
g. Whatever 何が起ころうとも、私は決心を変えません。
h. whoever 聞いてくれる人誰にでも彼は話をした。
i. whomever 彼は会う人誰にでも話をした。
j. Whenever 母がいない時はいつでも私がランチを作らないといけません。

テストに出るかも?  復習問題

以下の長文2題を読んで指示に従いましょう。

Ⅰ.
However hard they try, scientists will never be able to make a computer ②that can have natural and ongoing conversations with humans. The reason is ③that conversation in human language often contain statements with meanings ④that are not necessarily expressed very clearly in words, but have a ( ⑤ある種の )“ hidden “ meaning.
These are called implicit statements. (⑦ being used, such statements, to the words, vary, according ),the situation, the speakers` relationship, and other factors. Computers would not be able to understand such statements and would probably interpret them as (  ⑧  )and (  ⑨  ).
People often say things that have an implicit meaning, as well as an explicit, or direct meaning. (⑩) this sentence, for example: “ There`s a really good Italian restaurant near my house.” Depending ( ⑪ ) the situation, this sentence may (⑫) a variety of needs. It may simply be a way to ( ⑬ ) information.
However, it may also ( ⑫ ) as an invitation, with the speaker intending to say, “ Would you like to go out to eat? “
A person who (  ⑭ ) the statement as being an invitation to the restaurant may then respond with a sentence like this: “   ⑮   !“ This statement could have the implicit meaning, “ Yes, I`d like to go,” as acceptance of the invitation. The listener could also respond like this; “ I have to get up early tomorrow. “This statement could carry the meaning, “ ⑯.”

① No  で始まる文章に書き換えましょう。
②③④ 使い方が同じ「that」はどれとどれでしょう?
⑤ 英作しましょう。(2語)
⑥ 具体的に何を指していますか?英語で答えましょう。
⑦ 意味の通る文章になるよう並び替えましょう。
⑧⑨ それぞれに入る適語はどれでしょう?
    a.  complete ,  natural        b.  incomplete ,  unnatural    c.  incomplete ,  natural
⑩「この文章を例にとってみましょう。」という意味になるよう(  )に適語を入れましょう。
⑪ 前置詞を入れましょう。
⑫⑬⑭ それぞれに入る動詞を以下の中から選びましょう。( 三単sは付いていません。)
    work,  know,  have,  convey,  give,  interpret, keep,  take, serve
⑮ 文意にそって適当な文章を英作しましょう。
⑯ 文意にそって適当な文章を英作しましょう。
⑰ Read the following sentence and answer the question.
    You are going to celebrate Tom`s birthday next week and you are wondering what to buy for him, when Tom says , “ I`ve lost my watch. “Question;
    What do you think is the implicit meaning of “ I`ve lost my watch.”?
    Please write your idea.

正解と解説 :
① No matter how hard they may try,
②③④ ②と④ どちらも関係代名詞、③は補語をつくる代名詞
⑤ sort of  ( kind of )
⑥ Statements with meanings that are not necessarily expressed very clearly in word, but have a a sort of hidden meaning.
⑦ Such statements vary according to the words being used
⑧⑨ b
⑩ Take
⑪ on
⑫ serve
⑬ convey
⑭ interpret
⑮ I love Italian food  (  I like Italian food.  I want to eat some pizza. )
⑯ Sorry, I cannot go with you (  Sorry, I`m too busy to go. )
⑰ Tom wants me to buy a watch as a birthday present.
    Tom wants a watch as a birthday present.


(①)②the words the speaker uses and his or her intension sometimes differ, inference is required in communication. The listener must interpret the implicit meaning of a sentence based on the situation and the character of the speaker. Take the question, “ Did you have fun at the amusement park?” If the response was, “ Well, I liked the exit,” the speaker probably intends to say, “ ③(楽しくなかった) and I was not happy ( ④  ) I left the park.”
    However, if the listener does not understand the implicit meaning, he or she may think, “ There was something very nice at the( ⑤ ) to the park. “ Therefore, the speaker must make his or her intension ( ⑥ know  ) to the listener in a way that does not generate misunderstanding.
     So how can people best have a conversation without ( ⑦create ) confusion? In most cases, a person tries to say what can be understood by ( ⑧  ), and expects ( ⑧  ) to give the information that  he or she wants to receive. Linguists have (⑨ 思い浮かぶ ) general rules for natural conversation. If people don`t follow these rules, the conversation may seem strange.
     The British linguist Paul Grice summed up the rules for conversation in his approach toward conversation, which he called the Cooperative Principle. He offered⑩ four “ norms “ for natural conversation.

① 適切な接続詞を入れましょう。
② 関係代名詞を入れるとしたらどこが適切でしょうか?関係代名詞の前の単語を書きましょう。
③ 英作しましょう。( have を使いましょう.)
④ 適切な接続詞を入れましょう。
⑤ 空所に入る適語を文中から選びましょう。
⑥ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑦ 適切な形に変えましょう。
⑧「他人」という意味の単語を入れましょう。
⑨ 3語の熟語を時制をよく考えて入れましょう。
⑩ 具体的にどのようなものですか?
    教科書に書いてあった内容を思い出して書きましょう。

正解と解説 :
① Because
② words
③ I didn`t have a good time. I didn`t have a nice time.
④ until
⑤ exit
⑥ known   自分の言いたいことを聞き手に知ってもらうので過去分詞のknown
⑦ creating   前置詞withoutの後には名詞
⑧ others
⑨ come up with
⑩ quantity,  quality,  relation,  manner

重要単語、熟語のまとめ

ongoing, contain, statement, a sort of, implicit, interpret, incomplete, unnatural, explicit, a variety of~,convey, acceptance, intention, generate, linguist, sum, approach, cooperative, principle, norm, quantity,four-wheeled, informative, break down, relation, relevant, manner, interaction, minimize, abrupt,unpleasantness, unfavorable, tendency, soften, utterance, politeness, care for~, background, converse,misunderstand-misunderstood, reader, annoy, literally, first of all, embarrass, secondly, subtlety, faithfully, serve, not…until( till )S+V, come up with~, Would you mind…ing? certain, in the way that~~,

文法のまとめ

★ 1 複合関係代名詞、複合関係副詞

 

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